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Highly specialised field of urology

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Urology is the medical and surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of men and women and on the reproductive system of men.
Medical professionals specialising in the field of urology are called urologists and are trained to diagnose, treat and manage patients with urological disorders. The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra and the male reproductive organs.
A urologist deals with diseases like Prostate disease, a general term that describes a number of medical conditions that can affect the prostate gland, bladder problems, kidney stones and a wide range of cancers of the urinary tract and reproductive organs.
Other fields of study in this profession include Cytology, a detailed examination of a urine specimen looking for abnormal blood cells, inflammatory cells, organisms and important cancer cells, as well as sexually transmitted infections and male infertility.
Sub-disciplines of urology:
Endourology is the branch of urology that deals with the closed manipulation of the urinary tract. As opposed to open surgery, endourology is performed using small cameras and instruments inserted into the urinary tract
Urologic oncology concerns the surgical treatment of malignant diseases such as cancer in the urinary tract and male reproductive organs
Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions with the aid of a camera. It can either be used to inspect and diagnose a condition or to perform surgery
Neurourology concerns nervous system control of the urinary system and of conditions causing abnormal urination. Neurological diseases and disorders such as a stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and spinal cord injury can disrupt the lower urinary tract and result in conditions such as urinary incontinence or urinary retention
Paediatric urology concerns urologic disorders in children
Andrology focuses on the male reproductive system
Female Urology is a branch of urology dealing with overactive bladder, pelvic organ prolapse, and urinary incontinence. Many of these physicians also practice neurourology and reconstructive urology
Reconstructive urology is a highly specialised field of urology that restores both structure and function to the urinary and male reproductive tract